Category

# Computability logic

Summary
Computability logic (CoL) is a research program and mathematical framework for redeveloping logic as a systematic formal theory of computability, as opposed to classical logic which is a formal theory of truth. It was introduced and so named by Giorgi Japaridze in 2003. In classical logic, formulas represent true/false statements. In CoL, formulas represent computational problems. In classical logic, the validity of a formula depends only on its form, not on its meaning. In CoL, validity means being always computable. More generally, classical logic tells us when the truth of a given statement always follows from the truth of a given set of other statements. Similarly, CoL tells us when the computability of a given problem A always follows from the computability of other given problems B1,...,Bn. Moreover, it provides a uniform way to actually construct a solution (algorithm) for such an A from any known solutions of B1,...,Bn. CoL formulates computational problems in their most general – interactive sense. CoL defines a computational problem as a game played by a machine against its environment. Such a problem is computable if there is a machine that wins the game against every possible behavior of the environment. Such a game-playing machine generalizes the Church-Turing thesis to the interactive level. The classical concept of truth turns out to be a special, zero-interactivity-degree case of computability. This makes classical logic a special fragment of CoL. Thus CoL is a conservative extension of classical logic. Computability logic is more expressive, constructive and computationally meaningful than classical logic. Besides classical logic, independence-friendly (IF) logic and certain proper extensions of linear logic and intuitionistic logic also turn out to be natural fragments of CoL. Hence meaningful concepts of "intuitionistic truth", "linear-logic truth" and "IF-logic truth" can be derived from the semantics of CoL.