Concept

92nd Infantry Division (United States)

Summary
The 92nd Infantry Division (92nd Division, WWI) was an African-American, later mixed, infantry division of the United States Army that served in World War I, World War II, and the Korean War. The military was racially segregated during the World Wars. The division was organized in October 1917, after the U.S. entry into World War I, at Camp Funston, Kansas, with African-American soldiers from all states. In 1918, before leaving for France, the American buffalo was selected as the divisional insignia due to the "Buffalo Soldiers" nickname, given to African-American cavalrymen in the 19th century. The divisional nickname, "Buffalo Soldiers Division", was inherited from the 366th Infantry, one of the first units organized in the division. The 92nd Infantry Division was the only African-American infantry division that participated in combat in Europe during World War II. Other units were used as support. It was part of the U.S. Fifth Army, fighting in the Italian Campaign from 1944 to the war's end. At the outbreak of the Korean War the division was reorganised at Fort McClean, Arizona. Due to the Executive Order 9981 of 1948 which desegregated the US Armed Forces, the division became a mixed unit with white and black soldiers. Some aspects of its past as a segregated unit remained, including its nickname "Buffalo Soldiers" and patch of a black American buffalo. After the war the division returned home to the USA, and was disbanded on 29 June, 1953. Activated: October 1917 Overseas: 18 July 1918 Major operations: Meuse-Argonne less field artillery Casualties: total: 1,647 (KIA: 120; WIA: 1,527). Commanders: Maj. Gen. Charles C. Ballou (29 October 1917), Maj. Gen. Charles Henry Martin (19 November 1918), Brig. Gen. James B. Erwin (16 December 1918). Returned to United States and inactivated: February 1919. The 92nd Division was first constituted on paper on 24 October 1917 in the National Army, over six months after the American entry into World War I. The division was commanded throughout most of its existence by Major General Charles C.
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