Concept

Hawazma tribe

Summary
Hawazma, part of Sudan's Baggara tribe, are cattle herders who roam the area from the southern parts of North Kurdufan to the southern borders of South Kurdufan, a distance of about 300 kilometers. Through their nomadic movement, the Hawazma know the area, terrain, ethnic groups, local tribes, tribal cultures, ecosystems, climate, vegetation, existence of risks and diseases, and water resources better than any other inhabitants of the region. The term Baggara is a collective name applied to all cattle-herding tribes with Arab roots. Cattle herders from Nuba tribes are not called Baggara. Cattle herders of middle and eastern Sudan, although they Arabic in roots, are also not Baggara. The Baggara occupies a wide area, from Kordofan, Mid-Western Sudan, to Darfur in the far Western Sudan and extending to neighboring Chad. They are a collection of seven major tribes: Hawazma, Messiria Humr Messiria Zurug, Rizeigat, Ta’isha, Habbaniya, Beni Halba, Awlad Himayd, and Beni Selam. All Baggara have close physical characteristics, costumes, dance, religion, food, and in general a common culture and way of life. The Hawazma are believed to have migrated to Sudan during early days of Islamic missionaries to Africa as part of Baggara Arabs, perhaps as early as the 12th century. Most historians believe they belong to the Juhayna group; a clan of Bedouin Arabs which migrated from Saudi Arabia. Hawazma traditional historians say they originally came from the Arabian Peninsula to Egypt then followed the River Nile until they settled on Jebel Awliyya part of Khartoum Province and as the grazing land became scarce and overcrowded they gradually moved to Western Sudan. These stories correspond well with the presence of scores of Hawazma in Kosti, Middle Sudan, Um Rowaba, Eastern part of Kordofan and Al Rahad, middle-eastern part of Kordofan. The journey continued beyond Kordofan, to Darfur on the Western Sudan and today they have reached Chad, the country on western border of Sudan.
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