Concept

Aniracetam

Summary
Aniracetam (brand names Draganon, Sarpul, Ampamet, Memodrin, Referan), also known as N-anisoyl-2-pyrrolidinone, is a racetam which is sold in Europe as a prescription drug. It is not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States as a prescription medication or dietary supplement. Despite the FDA's lack of approval, the drug is readily available over-the-counter in misbranded dietary supplements. Pharmacology Aniracetam has been shown to positively modulate the AMPA receptor. When ingested orally aniracetam is quickly broken down via first pass hepatic metabolism. The primary metabolites of aniracetam are N-anisoyl-GABA, (70–80%), 2-Pyrrolidinone and p-anisic acid (20–30%). There is some preliminary research suggesting that N-anisoyl-GABA and to a lesser degree p-ansic acid may contribute to the stimulatory effects of aniracetamin in rats. Further work in rats suggets that N-anisoyl-GABA may contribute more to increasing acety
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