Graciliano Ramos

Graciliano Ramos de Oliveira (ɡɾasiliˈɐ̃nu ˈʁɐ̃muz dʒi oliˈvejɾɐ) (October 27, 1892 – March 20, 1953) was a Brazilian modernist writer, politician and journalist. He is known worldwide for his portrayal of the precarious situation of the poor inhabitants of the Brazilian sertão in his novel Vidas secas. His characters are complex, nuanced, and tend to have pessimistic world views, from which Ramos deals with topics such as the lust for power (the main theme in São Bernardo), misogyny (a key point in Angústia), and infidelity. His protagonists are mostly lower-class men from northeastern Brazil, which are often aspiring writers (such as in Caetés), or illiterate country workers, all of which usually have to deal with poverty and complex social relations. Like fellow writers Jorge Amado and Erico Verissimo, Ramos was part of Brazil's second generation of modernist writers, in what is known as "1930s modernism". A lifelong supporter of communist ideas, he was affiliated with the original Brazilian Communist Party. Graciliano Ramos de Oliveira was born in the city of Quebrangulo, in the Brazilian state of Alagoas, on October 27, 1892, to Sebastião Ramos de Oliveira and Maria Amélia Ramos. Graciliano was the oldest of the couple's 16 children. He would spend most part of his childhood travelling through different cities of Northeast Brazil. After finishing high school in Maceió, he became a collaborator of the newspaper Jornal de Alagoas in 1909, where he published a sonnet called "Céptico" under the pen name Almeida Cunha, and some other texts under many different pseudonyms. He also published texts in the magazine O Malho, under the pen name Feliciano de Olivença, and founded a short-lived periodical named Echo Viçosense in 1906. In 1914 he moved to Rio de Janeiro, but had to return to Alagoas in September 1915, in order to live with his father, who became a salesman in the city of Palmeira dos Índios. Also in 1915, he married his first wife, Maria Augusta de Barros, having with her four children.
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