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Category# Standard Model

Summary

The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (electromagnetic, weak and strong interactions – excluding gravity) in the universe and classifying all known elementary particles. It was developed in stages throughout the latter half of the 20th century, through the work of many scientists worldwide, with the current formulation being finalized in the mid-1970s upon experimental confirmation of the existence of quarks. Since then, proof of the top quark (1995), the tau neutrino (2000), and the Higgs boson (2012) have added further credence to the Standard Model. In addition, the Standard Model has predicted various properties of weak neutral currents and the W and Z bosons with great accuracy.
Although the Standard Model is believed to be theoretically self-consistent and has demonstrated some success in providing experimental predictions, it leaves some physical phenomena unexplained and so falls short of being a complete theory of fundamental interactions. For example, it does not fully explain baryon asymmetry, incorporate the full theory of gravitation as described by general relativity, or account for the universe's accelerating expansion as possibly described by dark energy. The model does not contain any viable dark matter particle that possesses all of the required properties deduced from observational cosmology. It also does not incorporate neutrino oscillations and their non-zero masses.
The development of the Standard Model was driven by theoretical and experimental particle physicists alike. The Standard Model is a paradigm of a quantum field theory for theorists, exhibiting a wide range of phenomena, including spontaneous symmetry breaking, anomalies, and non-perturbative behavior. It is used as a basis for building more exotic models that incorporate hypothetical particles, extra dimensions, and elaborate symmetries (such as supersymmetry) to explain experimental results at variance with the Standard Model, such as the existence of dark matter and neutrino oscillations.

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PHYS-415: Particle physics I

Presentation of particle properties, their symmetries and interactions.
Introduction to quantum electrodynamics and to the Feynman rules.

PHYS-416: Particle physics II

Presentation of the electroweak and strong interaction theories that constitute the Standard Model of particle physics. The course also discusses the new theories proposed to solve the problems of the

PHYS-432: Quantum field theory II

The goal of the course is to introduce relativistic quantum field theory as the conceptual and mathematical framework describing fundamental interactions such as Quantum Electrodynamics.

Electroweak interaction

In particle physics, the electroweak interaction or electroweak force is the unified description of two of the four known fundamental interactions of nature: electromagnetism (electromagnetic interaction) and the weak interaction. Although these two forces appear very different at everyday low energies, the theory models them as two different aspects of the same force. Above the unification energy, on the order of 246 GeV, they would merge into a single force.

J/psi meson

The _J/psi (J/psi) meson ˈdʒeɪ_ˈsaɪ_ˈmiːzɒn is a subatomic particle, a flavor-neutral meson consisting of a charm quark and a charm antiquark. Mesons formed by a bound state of a charm quark and a charm anti-quark are generally known as "charmonium" or psions. The _J/Psi is the most common form of charmonium, due to its spin of 1 and its low rest mass. The _J/Psi has a rest mass of 3.0969GeV/c2, just above that of the _charmed eta (2.9836GeV/c2), and a mean lifetime of 7.2e-21s.

Strange quark

The strange quark or s quark (from its symbol, s) is the third lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle. Strange quarks are found in subatomic particles called hadrons. Examples of hadrons containing strange quarks include kaons (_Kaon), strange D mesons (_Strange D), Sigma baryons (_Sigma), and other strange particles. According to the IUPAP, the symbol s is the official name, while "strange" is to be considered only as a mnemonic.

Plasma Physics: Introduction

Learn the basics of plasma, one of the fundamental states of matter, and the different types of models used to describe it, including fluid and kinetic.

Plasma Physics: Introduction

Learn the basics of plasma, one of the fundamental states of matter, and the different types of models used to describe it, including fluid and kinetic.

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Learn about plasma applications from nuclear fusion powering the sun, to making integrated circuits, to generating electricity.

Topics in quantum field theory

In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is a theoretical framework that combines classical field theory, special relativity, and quantum mechanics. QFT is used in particle physics to construct physical models of subatomic particles and in condensed matter physics to construct models of quasiparticles. QFT treats particles as excited states (also called quanta) of their underlying quantum fields, which are more fundamental than the particles.

Topics in nuclear physics

Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions, in addition to the study of other forms of nuclear matter. Nuclear physics should not be confused with atomic physics, which studies the atom as a whole, including its electrons. Discoveries in nuclear physics have led to applications in many fields. This includes nuclear power, nuclear weapons, nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging, industrial and agricultural isotopes, ion implantation in materials engineering, and radiocarbon dating in geology and archaeology.

Topics in quantum mechanics

Quantum mechanics is a fundamental theory in physics that provides a description of the physical properties of nature at the scale of atoms and subatomic particles. It is the foundation of all quantum physics including quantum chemistry, quantum field theory, quantum technology, and quantum information science. Classical physics, the collection of theories that existed before the advent of quantum mechanics, describes many aspects of nature at an ordinary (macroscopic) scale, but is not sufficient for describing them at small (atomic and subatomic) scales.

Effective Field Theories have changed our understanding of Quantum Field Theories. This thesis shows several applications of this powerful tool in the context of the Standard Model and for searches of New Physics.The thesis starts with a review of the Standard Model and its open questions and is followed by an updated and systematic study of models of flavor in the context of Partial Compositeness in Composite Higgs theories. Following that, the question on how to measure the Wilson coefficients of the Standard Model effective operators at present and future experiments is addressed: first by using modern Machine Learning techniques by studying angular distributions for diboson production, followed then by a study on ElectroWeak radiation at a future Muon Collider and how to use it to better probe the new physics parameter space.The fourth chapter deals instead with applying Non-Relativistic Effective Theories to the study of exotic mesons in the Standard Model. The two competing interpretations, a molecule formed of two mesons or a compact tetraquark state, and their consequences are studied. In particular this study is done on the X(3872) exotic charmonium and the consequences of the two accidental tunings of this system are discussed.The last chapter addresses the problem of baryogenesis from the ElectroWeak phase transition. A new scalar sector is introduced that decouples the physics responsible for the generation of the baryon asymmetry from the weak scale. This helps solving the main problems that ElectroWeak baryogenesis models face, namely the large modifications to the Higgs physics and the need of large CP violating new effects.

The nu MSM an extension of the Standard Model by three relatively light singlet Majorana fermions N-1,N-2,N-3 allows for the generation of lepton asymmetry which is several orders of magnitude larger than the observed baryon asymmetry of the Universe. The lepton asymmetry is produced in interactions of N-2,N-3 (with masses in the GeV region) at temperatures below the sphaleron freeze out T less than or similar to 130 GeV and can enhance the cosmological production of dark matter (DM) sterile neutrinos N-1 (with the mass of the keV scale) happening at T similar to 200 MeV due to active-sterile neutrino mixing. This asymmetry can be generated in freeze-in, freeze-out, or later in decays of heavy neutral leptons. In this work, we address the question of the magnitude of the late-time asymmetry (LTA) generated by the heavy neutral leptons N-2,N-3 during their freeze-in and freeze-out, leaving the decays for later work. We study how much of this asymmetry can survive down to the lower temperatures relevant for the sterile neutrino DM creation. We find that this LTA could result in the production of a sizeable fraction of dark matter. We also examine a role played by magnetic fields and the Abelian chiral anomaly in the generation of LTA, not accounted for in the previous studies. We argue that the production of LTA can be increased significantly and make an estimate of the influence of this effect.

Effective Field Theories (EFTs) allow a description of low energy effects of heavy new physics Beyond the Standard Model (BSM) in terms of higher dimensional operators among the SM fields. EFTs are not only an elegant and consistent way to describe heavy new physics but they represent, at the same time, a valuable experimental tool for collider searches. The Standard Model Effective Field Theory naturally parametrizes the space of models BSM and measuring its interactions is, nowadays, substantial part of the theoretical and the experimental program at the (HL-)LHC and at future colliders. In this thesis we address the theoretical challenges of this Beyond the Standard Model precision program, following three different paths.Firstly, we present some results towards the so-called high-$p_T$ program at the (HL-)LHC, targeting to measure energy growing effects of higher dimensional operators in the tail of kinematic distributions. Concretely, we focus on dilepton production and we study the sensitivity to flavor universal dimension-six operators interfering with the SM and enhanced by the energy. We produce theoretical predictions for the SM and the dim-6 EFT operators at NLO-QCD, including 1-loop EW logs. Our predictions are based on event reweighting of SM Montecarlo simulations and allow an easy scan of the multi-dimensional new physics parameter space on data. Furthermore we asses the impact of the various sources of theoretical uncertainties and we study the projected sensitivity of (HL-)LHC to the EFT interactions under consideration and to concrete BSM scenario.We then turn to future colliders and in particular to very high energy lepton colliders. In this context we study the potential of such machines with about 10 TeV center of mass energy to probe Higgs, ElectroWeak and Top physics at 100 TeV via precise measurements of EFT interactions. A peculiar aspect of so energetic ElectroWeak processes is the prominent phenomenon of the EW radiation. On one hand we find that consistent and sufficiently accurate predictions require resummations, that we perform at double logarithmic order. On the other hand we show how the study of the radiation pattern can enhance the sensitivity to new physics. We assess our results in Composite Higgs and Top scenarios and minimal Z' models.Finally, we move to a top-down perspective and we perform a phenomenological study of composite Higgs models with partially composite Standard Models quarks. Starting from maximally symmetric scenarios that realize minimal flavor violation, we test various assumptions for the flavor structure of the strong sector. Among the different models we consider, we find that there is an optimal amount of symmetries that protects from (chromo-)electric dipoles and reduces, at the same time, constraints from other flavor observables.

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Explores elementary particles, the Standard Model's limitations, and the search for new physics beyond it, focusing on direct and indirect methods.

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Explores partons, hadrons, strong force, deep inelastic scattering, elastic and inelastic scattering, and Bjorken scaling.