Brookeville is a town in Montgomery County, Maryland, located north of Washington, D.C., and north of Olney. Brookeville was settled by Quakers late in the 18th century and was formally incorporated as a town in 1808. Historically part of the local agricultural industry, Brookeville is now at the northern edge of the densely developed Washington suburbs. The population was 166 at the 2020 census.
Brookeville is notable as the "United States Capital for a Day" during the War of 1812, when British troops burned Washington D.C., and President James Madison sought refuge in Brookeville on August 26, 1814. During the American Civil War, Brookeville, along with nearby Sandy Spring, was a stop on the Underground Railroad.
The U.S. Postal Service (USPS) defines a larger area as Brookeville than what falls within the town boundaries. This includes areas extending to the Patuxent River and the Howard County border, and including the small hamlets of