Orford is a town in Grafton County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 1,237 at the 2020 census, unchanged from the 2010 census. The Appalachian Trail crosses in the east.
First called "Number Seven" in a line of Connecticut River fort towns, Orford was incorporated in 1761 by Governor Benning Wentworth and named for Robert Walpole, Earl of Orford, who was the first prime minister of Great Britain. The town was settled in 1765 by Daniel Cross and wife from Lebanon, Connecticut. By 1859, it had 1,406 inhabitants, most involved in agriculture. There was a large tannery, a chair factory, ten sawmills, a starch factory, a gristmill, a sash, blind and door factory, and two boot and shoe factories.
An original grantee was General Israel Morey, whose son Samuel Morey discovered a way to separate hydrogen from oxygen in water, making possible the first marine steam engine. He recognized the potential