Hadrian (ˈheɪdriən, ; Caesar Traianus Hadrianus ˈkae̯sar trajˈjaːnʊs (h)adriˈjaːnʊs; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He was born in Italica, close to modern Seville in Spain, a small Roman municipium of Hispania Baetica founded by Scipio as an Italic settlement; his branch of the Aelia gens, the Aeli Hadriani, came from the town of Hadria. Hadrian was a member of the Nerva–Antonine dynasty.
Early in his career, Hadrian married Vibia Sabina, grandniece of the ruling emperor, Trajan. The marriage, and his later succession as emperor were probably promoted by Trajan's wife Pompeia Plotina. On his succession, Hadrian had four leading senators put to death. This earned him the senate's lifelong enmity. He earned further disapproval among the elite by abandoning Trajan's expansionist policies and territorial gains in Mesopotamia, Assyria, Armenia, and parts of Dacia. Hadrian preferred to invest in the development of stable, defensible borders and the unifi