Mirza Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad (na'siːrʊdiːn mʊha'mad; 6 March 1508 – 27 January 1556), better known by his regnal name, Humāyūn; , was the second emperor of the Mughal Empire, who ruled over territory in what is now Eastern Afghanistan, Pakistan, Northern India, and Bangladesh from 1530 to 1540 and again from 1555 to 1556. At the time of his death in 1556, the Mughal Empire spanned almost one million square kilometres.
In December 1530, Humayun succeeded his father Babur to the throne of Delhi as ruler of the Mughal territories in the Indian subcontinent. Humayun was an inexperienced ruler when he came to power, at the age of 22. His half-brother Kamran Mirza inherited Kabul and Kandahar, the northernmost parts of their father's empire. The two half-brothers would become bitter rivals. Like his father, he lost his empire early but regained and expanded it with the aid of the Safavid dynasty of Persia.
Humayun lost Mughal territories to Sher Shah Suri, but regai