François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture (fʁɑ̃swa dɔminik tusɛ̃ luvɛʁtyʁ, ˌluːvərˈtjʊər) also known as Toussaint L'Ouverture or Toussaint Bréda; 20 May 1743 – 7 April 1803) was a Haitian general and the most prominent leader of the Haitian Revolution. During his life, Louverture first fought against the French, then for them, and then finally against France again for the cause of Haitian independence. As a revolutionary leader, Louverture displayed military and political acumen that helped transform the fledgling slave rebellion into a revolutionary movement. Louverture is now known as the "Father of Haiti".
Louverture was born enslaved on the French colony of Saint-Domingue, now known as Haiti. He was a devout Catholic who became a freeman before the revolution and, once freed, identified as a Frenchman for the greater part of his life. During his time as a freeman he attempted to climb the highly stratified social ladder on the island, combatting racism whilst gaining and losin