Samuel Bailey (5 July 1791 – 18 January 1870) was a British philosopher, economist and writer. He was called the "Bentham of Hallamshire".
Bailey was born at Sheffield on 5 July 1791, the son of Joseph Bailey and Mary Eadon. His father was among the first of those Sheffield merchants who went to the United States to establish trade connections. After a few years in his father's business, he retired from all business concerns with an ample fortune, although he remained connected with the Sheffield Banking Company, of which he was a founder in 1831 and served as chairman for many years. Although an ardent liberal, he took little part in political affairs. On two occasions, he stood for Sheffield as a "philosophic radical" parliamentary candidate, but without success.
His life is for the most part a history of his numerous and varied publications. He died suddenly on 18 January 1870, leaving over £80,000 to the town trustees of Sheffield for public use.