Concept

Charge ordering

Summary
Charge ordering (CO) is a (first- or second-order) phase transition occurring mostly in strongly correlated materials such as transition metal oxides or organic conductors. Due to the strong interaction between electrons, charges are localized on different sites leading to a disproportionation and an ordered superlattice. It appears in different patterns ranging from vertical to horizontal stripes to a checkerboard–like pattern , and it is not limited to the two-dimensional case. The charge order transition is accompanied by symmetry breaking and may lead to ferroelectricity. It is often found in close proximity to superconductivity and colossal magnetoresistance. This long range order phenomena was first discovered in magnetite (Fe3O4) by Verwey in 1939. He observed an increase of the electrical resistivity by two orders of magnitude at TCO=120K, suggesting a phase transition which is now well known as the Verwey transition. He was the first to propose the idea of an ordering pro
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