Concept

Human shield

Summary
A human shield is a non-combatant (or a group of non-combatants) who either volunteers or is forced to shield a legitimate military target in order to deter the enemy from attacking it. The concept of human shields as a resistance measure was created by Mahatma Gandhi as a weapon of resistance. On the other hand, the weaponization of civilians has also developed as a tactic by some non-state actors like ISIS. Legal background Human shield (law) Forcing non-combatants to serve as human shields is a war crime according to the 1949 Geneva Conventions, the 1977 Additional Protocol I to the Geneva Conventions, and the 1998 Rome Statute. According to law professor Eliav Lieblich, "Armed groups might be responsible for harm that they occasion to civilians under their control. But to argue that this absolves the other party from responsibility is to get both law and morality wrong." Law professor Adil Ahmad Haque states that involuntary shields "ret
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