Concept# Mirror image

Summary

A mirror image (in a plane mirror) is a reflected duplication of an object that appears almost identical, but is reversed in the direction perpendicular to the mirror surface. As an optical effect it results from reflection off from substances such as a mirror or water. It is also a concept in geometry and can be used as a conceptualization process for 3-D structures.
In geometry and geometrical optics
In two dimensions
Reflectional symmetry
In geometry, the mirror image of an object or two-dimensional figure is the formed by reflection in a plane mirror; it is of the same size as the original object, yet different, unless the object or figure has reflection symmetry (also known as a P-symmetry).
Two-dimensional mirror images can be seen in the reflections of mirrors or other reflecting surfaces, or on a printed surface seen inside-out. If we first look at an object that is effectively two-dimensional (such as the writing on a card) and then turn the card to fa

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Zhe Chen, Mario Paolone, Zhaoyang Wang

The classical electromagnetic time reversal (EMTR) fault location method in power systems can be time consuming, especially when a high location accuracy is desired. To cope with this issue, the concept of EMTR in mismatched media has recently been introduced, substantially improving the fault location efficiency. In this paper, we present a theoretical study and rigorous demonstration of the mismatched-media-based mirrored minimum energy property. Firstly, we infer a direct-reversed-time transfer function and present a theorem according to which, at the fault switching frequency and its odd harmonics, the mirror-image point of the fault location with respect to the line center corresponds to a local minimum of the squared modulus of the transfer function. Next, it is proved that the mirrored minimum energy property is a corollary of this theorem. Based on these theoretical findings, we propose an algorithm that uses the reversed-time voltage energy as a fault location metric in the frequency domain, instead of the original time-domain approach. We further propose applying a data-driven strategy to maximize the computation efficiency of the algorithm. The applicability and robustness of the frequency-domain fault location metric, together with the computational efficiency of the accelerating algorithm, are numerically and experimentally validated.

2021From a geometrical perspective, a chiral object does not have mirror planes or inversion symmetry. It exhibits the same physical properties as its mirror image (enantiomer), except for the chiroptical activity, which is often the opposite. Recent advancements have identified particularly interesting implications of chirality on the optical properties of metal nanoparticles, which are intimately related to localized surface plasmon resonance phenomena. Although such resonances are usually independent of the circular polarization of light, specific strategies have been applied to induce chirality, both in assemblies and at the single-particle level. In this tutorial review, we discuss the origin of plasmonic chirality, as well as theoretical models that have been proposed to explain it. We then summarise recent developments in the synthesis of discrete nanoparticles with plasmonic chirality by means of wet-chemistry methods. We conclude with a discussion of promising applications for discrete chiral nanoparticles. We expect this tutorial review to be of interest to researchers from a wide variety of disciplines where chiral plasmonics can be exploited at the nanoparticle level, such as chemical sensing, photocatalysis, photodynamic or photothermal therapies, etc.

The chiral lattice is a unique structural network not symmetric to its mirror image, and with a negative Poisson’s ratio. Previous investigations have considered this structural network for the design of superior structural components with sandwich construction, but these were limited by the in-plane Poisson’s ratio predicted to be exactly -1. This paper presents estimates of the mechanical properties of the chiral lattice obtained from a multi-cell finite-element model. It is shown that the chiral lattice has a shear stiffness bound by that of the triangular lattice and it is very compliant to direct stresses. The minimum in-plane poisson’s ratio is estimated to be approximately -0.94.