Summary
Quantum technology is an emerging field of physics and engineering, encompassing technologies that rely on the properties of quantum mechanics, especially quantum entanglement, quantum superposition, and quantum tunneling. Quantum computing, sensors, cryptography, simulation, measurement, and imaging are all examples of emerging quantum technologies. The development of quantum technology also heavily impacts established fields such as space exploration. Quantum communication Quantum secure communication is a method that is expected to be 'quantum safe' in the advent of quantum computing systems that could break current cryptography systems using methods such as Shor's algorithm. These methods include quantum key distribution (QKD), a method of transmitting information using entangled light in a way that makes any interception of the transmission obvious to the user. Another method is the quantum random number generator, which is capable of producing truly random numbers unlike non-quantum algorithms that merely imitate randomness. Quantum computing Quantum computers are expected to have a number of important uses in computing fields such as optimization and machine learning. They are perhaps best known for their expected ability to carry out Shor's algorithm, which can be used to factorize large numbers and is an important process in the securing of data transmissions. Quantum simulator Quantum simulators are types of quantum computers used to simulate a real world system and can be used to simulate chemical compounds or solve high energy physics problems. Quantum simulators are simpler to build as opposed to general purpose quantum computers because complete control over every component is not necessary. Current quantum simulators under development include ultracold atoms in optical lattices, trapped ions, arrays of superconducting qubits, and others. Quantum sensor Quantum sensors are expected to have a number of applications in a wide variety of fields including positioning systems, communication technology, electric and magnetic field sensors, gravimetry as well as geophysical areas of research such as civil engineering and seismology.
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