If was an American science fiction magazine launched in March 1952 by Quinn Publications, owned by James L. Quinn.
The magazine was moderately successful, though for most of its run it was not considered to be in the first tier of American science fiction magazines. It achieved its greatest success under editor Frederik Pohl, winning the Hugo Award for best professional magazine three years running from 1966 to 1968. If published many award-winning stories over its 22 years, including Robert A. Heinlein's novel The Moon Is a Harsh Mistress and Harlan Ellison's short story "I Have No Mouth and I Must Scream". The most prominent writer to make his first sale to If was Larry Niven, whose story "The Coldest Place" appeared in the December 1964 issue.
If was merged into Galaxy Science Fiction after the December 1974 issue, its 175th issue overall.
Although science fiction had been published in the United States before the 1920s, it did not begin to coale