Sir Thomas Stamford Bingley Raffles (5 July 1781 – 5 July 1826) was a British colonial official who served as Governor of the Dutch East Indies between 1811 and 1816 and Lieutenant-Governor of Bencoolen between 1818 and 1824. Raffles was heavily involved in the capture of the Indonesian island of Java from the Dutch during the Napoleonic Wars. It was subsequently returned under the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814. He also wrote The History of Java in 1817, describing the history of the island from ancient times.
Raffles also played a role in further establishing the British Empire in the Far East. He secured control over the strategically located Singapore in 1819 in order to secure British access along the Strait of Singapore and the nearby seas in the region, particularly the South China Sea. His actions led to tensions between the British and the Dutch Empire, although this was settled in the Anglo–Dutch Treaty of 1824 which firmly established their spheres of influence; the Dutch subs