Concept

Laser construction

Summary
A laser is constructed from three principal parts: *An energy source (usually referred to as the pump or pump source), *A gain medium or laser medium, and *Two or more mirrors that form an optical resonator. Pump source The pump source is the part that provides energy to the laser system. Examples of pump sources include electrical discharges, flashlamps, arc lamps, light from another laser, chemical reactions and even explosive devices. The type of pump source used principally depends on the gain medium, and this also determines how the energy is transmitted to the medium. A helium–neon (HeNe) laser uses an electrical discharge in the helium-neon gas mixture, a Nd:YAG laser uses either light focused from a xenon flash lamp or diode lasers, and excimer lasers use a chemical reaction. Gain medium / Laser medium The gain medium is the major determining factor of the wavelength of operation, and other properties, of the laser. Gain media in different materials ha
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