*585 BC – A solar eclipse occurs, as predicted by the Greek philosopher and scientist Thales, while Alyattes is battling Cyaxares in the Battle of the Eclipse, leading to a truce. This is one of the cardinal dates from which other dates can be calculated.
621 – Battle of Hulao: Li Shimin, the son of the Chinese emperor Gaozu, defeats the numerically superior forces of Dou Jiande near the Hulao Pass (Henan). This victory decides the outcome of the civil war that followed the Sui dynasty's collapse in favour of the Tang dynasty.
1242 – Avignonet massacre, when a group of Cathars with the probable connivance of Count Raymond VII of Toulouse murdered the inquisitor William Arnaud and eleven of his companions
*1533 – The Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, declares the marriage of King Henry VIII of England to Anne Boleyn valid.
*1588 – The Spanish Armada, with 130 ships and 30,000 men, sets sail from Lisbon, Portugal
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