Concept# Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution

Summary

In physics (in particular in statistical mechanics), the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, or Maxwell(ian) distribution, is a particular probability distribution named after James Clerk Maxwell and Ludwig Boltzmann.
It was first defined and used for describing particle speeds in idealized gases, where the particles move freely inside a stationary container without interacting with one another, except for very brief collisions in which they exchange energy and momentum with each other or with their thermal environment. The term "particle" in this context refers to gaseous particles only (atoms or molecules), and the system of particles is assumed to have reached thermodynamic equilibrium. The energies of such particles follow what is known as Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics, and the statistical distribution of speeds is derived by equating particle energies with kinetic energy.
Mathematically, the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution is the chi distribution with three degrees of freedom (the co

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We study the evolution of a system composed of N non-interacting particles of mass m distributed in a cylinder of length L. The cylinder is separated into two parts by an adiabatic piston of a mass M ≫ m. The length of the cylinder is a fix parameter and can be finite or infinite (in this case N is infinite). For the infinite case we carry out a perturbative analysis using Boltzmann's equation based on a development of the velocity distribution of the piston in function of a small dimensionless parameter ε = √(m/M). The non-stationary case is solved up to the order ε ;; our analysis shows that the system tends exponentially fast towards a stationary state where the piston has an average velocity V. The characteristic time scale for this relaxation is proportional to the mass of the piston (τ0 = M/A where A is the cross-section of the piston). We show that for equal pressures the collisions of the particles induce asymmetric fluctuations of the velocity of the piston which leads to a macroscopic movement of the piston in the direction of the higher temperature. In the case of the finite model a perturbative approach based on Liouville's equation (using the parameter α = 2m/(M + m)) shows that the evolution towards thermal equilibrium happens on two well separated time scales. The first relaxation step is a fast, deterministic and adiabatic evolution towards a state of mechanical equilibrium with approximately equal pressures but different temperatures. The movement of the piston is more or less damped. This damping qualitatively depends on whether the ratio R = Mgas/M between the total mass of the gas and the mass of the piston is small (R < 2) or large (R > 4). The second part of the evolution is much slower ; the typical time scales are proportional to the mass of the piston. There is a stochastic evolution including heat transfer leading to thermal equilibrium. A microscopic analysis yields the relation XM(t) = L(1/2 - ξ(at)) where the function ξ is independent of M. Using the hypothesis of homogeneity (i.e. the values of the densities, pressures and temperatures at the surface of the piston can be replaced by their respective average values) introduced in the previous analysis the observed damping does not show up. This can be explained by shock waves propagating between the piston and the walls at the extremities of the cylinder. In order to study the behaviour of the system there is hence a need to adequately describe the non-equilibrium fluids around the piston. We carry out an analysis of the infinite case, based on the perturbative approach introduced earlier. In this case the initial conditions are chosen in such a manner that the piston on average stays at the origin. It is shown that it is possible to describe the evolution of the fluids in such a way that it is coherent with the two laws of thermodynamics and the phenomenological relationships. Finally we study the case of a constant velocity of the piston in a finite cylinder. Such a condition and elastic collisions allow us to derive an explicit expression for the distribution of the fluids and hence for the hydrodynamics fields. This expression reveals the presence of shock waves between the piston and the extremities of the cylinder.

The macroscopic strength of metals is determined by the dislocation arrangements that are formed when dislocations slip in the crystal lattice in response to the applied stress. Despite the extensive research carried out, the transition from uniform to non-uniform dislocation structures is not yet fully understood. This information is however essential to support the development of computational models that aim to predict dislocation patterning. Lattice rotation caused by the presence of dislocations is, for instance, a parameter that is often not taken into account in computational models although it plays a role in the development of dislocation ensembles. Experimentally following in-situ dislocation patterning including involved lattice rotations at lengthscales comparable to those in simulations is not straightforward. In fact, the current available techniques that have the necessary spatial and angular resolution are either destructive (3D-EBSD) or very time consuming (3D X-ray Laue diffraction). In this dissertation we present a new experimental approach that allows following lattice rotation and dislocation ensembles time-resolved during deformation. The technique is based on X-ray Laue diffraction scanning in transmission mode, which provides a sub-micron spatial resolution in 2D and statistical information on orientation spread in the third dimension. The in-situ mechanical tests are performed at the microXAS beamline of the Swiss Light Source Synchrotron. The method has been applied to understand dislocation pattering of copper single crystals occurring in the earlier phases of low cycle fatigue. Samples with different crystal orientations (single crystal, coplanar and collinear) have been cyclically deformed up to a maximum of 120 cycles. A dedicated miniaturized shear-fatigue device compatible with Laue diffraction has been constructed for that purpose and a sample preparation based on picosecond laser ablation has been developed. The developed procedure analyzes the evolving dislocation microstructures in terms of lattice rotation, lattice curvature and geometrically necessary dislocation densities at lengthscales similar to those addressable in computational models. It sacrifices on the fully 3D aspect but it brings the time resolution required to validate ongoing simulations. It has been shown that the error made by integration depends on the dislocation network expected. For instance, the technique can be used to validate 3DDD models or density based dislocation dynamics models when applied in deformation geometries where the formation of 2D dislocation patterns are expected (e.g. vein-channel structure in single slip oriented fatigued samples). The greatest advantage of this technique is that the evolving regions are easy to follow due to the high rotational sensitivity and time resolution of the method. What is more, the influence of the initial microstructure can be evaluated and quantitative values can be provided. On the other hand, the principal drawbacks are related to the gauge thickness of the samples. Even if the technique can estimate the orientation spread along the third direction, the approach cannot physically resolve the integrated signal along the thickness. This is source of uncertainty when providing actual values of lattice curvatures and geometrically necessary dislocation densities. Another shortcoming is the sensitivity of the method to the energy distribution of the X-ray beam provided in the beamline, which determines the collected signal - the principal basis of the subsequent analysis and interpretation.

TP4 project: My work is mainly to achieve the identification, segmentation and tracking of defects and analyze their dynamics. In detail, the positions, the motion tracks, life expectancy, velocity distribution, etc. We will determine these observables among 488 frames while experimentally the field is ramped continuously from about 600 Oe to 1200 Oe.

2019