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Concept# Hilbert space

Summary

In mathematics, Hilbert spaces (named after David Hilbert) allow the methods of linear algebra and calculus to be generalized from (finite-dimensional) Euclidean vector spaces to spaces that may be infinite-dimensional. Hilbert spaces arise naturally and frequently in mathematics and physics, typically as function spaces. Formally, a Hilbert space is a vector space equipped with an inner product that induces a distance function for which the space is a complete metric space.
The earliest Hilbert spaces were studied from this point of view in the first decade of the 20th century by David Hilbert, Erhard Schmidt, and Frigyes Riesz. They are indispensable tools in the theories of partial differential equations, quantum mechanics, Fourier analysis (which includes applications to signal processing and heat transfer), and ergodic theory (which forms the mathematical underpinning of thermodynamics). John von Neumann coined the term Hilbert space for the abstract concept that underlies man

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This paper is concerned with frequency domain theory for functional time series, which are temporally dependent sequences of functions in a Hilbert space. We consider a variance decomposition, which is more suitable for such a data structure than the variance decomposition based on the Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The decomposition we study uses eigenvalues of spectral density operators, which are functional analogs of the spectral density of a stationary scalar time series. We propose estimators of the variance components and derive convergence rates for their mean square error as well as their asymptotic normality. The latter is derived from a frequency domain invariance principle for the estimators of the spectral density operators. This principle is established for a broad class of linear time series models. It is a main contribution of the paper.

We investigate how probability tools can be useful to study representations of non-amenable groups. A suitable notion of "probabilistic subgroup" is proposed for locally compact groups, and is valuable to induction of representations. Nonamenable groups admit nonabelian free subgroups in that measure-theoretical sense. Consequences for affine actions and for unitarizability are then drawn. In particular, we obtain a new characterization of amenability via some affine actions on Hilbert spaces. Along the way, various fixed-point properties for groups are studied. We also give a survey of several useful facts about group representations on Banach spaces, continuity of group actions, compactness of convex hulls in locally convex spaces, and measurability pathologies in Banach spaces.

We study many-body localization (MBL) in a pair-hopping model exhibiting strong fragmentation of the Hilbert space. We show that several Krylov subspaces have both ergodic statistics in the thermodynamic limit and a dimension that scales much slower than the full Hilbert space but still exponentially. Such a property allows us to study the MBL phase transition in systems including up to 64 spins. The different Krylov spaces that we consider show clear signatures of a many-body localization transition, both in the Kullback-Leibler divergence of the distribution of their level spacing ratio and their entanglement properties. However, they also present distinct scalings with the system size. Depending on the subspace, the critical disorder strength can be nearly independent of the system size or conversely show an approximately linear increase with the number of spins.

2021