In aphasia, a person may be unable to comprehend or unable to formulate language because of damage to specific brain regions. The major causes are stroke and head trauma; prevalence is hard to determine but aphasia due to stroke is estimated to be 0.1–0.4% in the Global North. Aphasia can also be the result of brain tumors, epilepsy, brain damage and brain infections, or neurodegenerative diseases (such as dementias).
To be diagnosed with aphasia, a person's language must be significantly impaired in one (or more) of the four aspects of communication. Alternatively, in the case of progressive aphasia, it must have significantly declined over a short period of time. The four aspects of communication are spoken language production and comprehension, and written language production and comprehension, impairments in any of these aspects can impact on functional communication.
The difficulties of people with aphasia can range from occasional trouble finding words, to lo