The Tiele, also named Gaoche or Gaoju, were a tribal confederation of Turkic ethnic origins living to the north of China proper and in Central Asia, emerging after the disintegration of the confederacy of the Xiongnu. Chinese sources associate them with the earlier Dingling.Chile and Gaoche
The names "Chile" and "Gaoche" first appear in Chinese records during the campaigns of Former Yan and Dai in 357 and 363 respectively. However, the protagonists were also addressed as "Dingling" in the records of the Southern Dynasties. The name Gaoche ("high cart") was a nickname given by the Chinese.Book of Jin, compiled by Fang Xuanling et al., listed Chile as the fifth of 19 Southern Xiongnu tribes (種). By the time of the Rouran domination, the Gaoche comprised six tribes and twelve clans (姓).The Gaoche are probably remnants of the ancient Red Di. Initially they had been called Dili. Northerners take them as Chile. Chinese take them as Gaoche Dingling. Their language, in brief,
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