Estrogen dominance (ED) is a theory about a metabolic state where the level of estrogen outweighs the level of progesterone in the body. This is said to be caused by a decrease in progesterone without a subsequent decrease in estrogen.The theory was proposed by John R. Lee and Virginia Hopkins in their 1996 book, What Your Doctor May Not Tell You About Menopause: The Breakthrough Book on Natural Progesterone. In their book Lee and Hopkins assert that ED causes fatigue, depression, anxiety, low libido, weight gain specifically in the midsection, water retention, headaches, mood swings and white spots on fingernails fibrocystic breasts. The book criticizes estrogen replacement therapy and proposes the use of "natural progesterone" for menopausal women in order to alleviate a variety of complaints. Lee's theories have been criticized for being inadequately supported through science, being primarily based on anecdotal evidence with no rigorous research to support them.
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