Concept

GLONASS-M

Summary
GLONASS-M (ГЛОНАСС-М), also known as Uragan-M (Ураган-М) (GRAU index 11F654M given to the first two pilot satellites and 14F113 to the rest) are the second generation of Uragan satellite design used as part of the Russian GLONASS radio-based satellite navigation system. Developed by ISS Reshetnev (Information Satellite Systems Reshetnev), it had its debut launch in 2003, and is in the process of being phased out. Its production finished in 2015 and its last launch was in November 2022. It is an evolution of the previous Uragan (GRAU Index 11F654) second-generation satellites, improving accuracy, increasing power, extending the design life and adding the FDMA L2OF open signal. The last eight Glonass-M spacecraft in production included the new CDMA L3OC open signal. Design It used a 3-axis stabilized pressurized bus with two solar panels, a propulsion module and a payload module. At these are just heavier than the previous generation, but have 25% mor
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