Roland Thaxter (August 28, 1858 – April 22, 1932) was an American mycologist, plant pathologist, botanist, and entomologist, renowned for his contribution to the insect parasitic fungi—Laboulbeniales. His college education was completed at Harvard, where he dedicated forty years to mycological and botanical research. His five-volume series on fungi in the order Laboulbeniales laid a solid foundation of research on these insect ectoparasites. He also contributed to the field of Plant Pathology.
Roland Thaxter was born in Newtonville, Massachusetts, 1858, the third and youngest child in the family. His parents were Levi Thaxter and Celia (née Laighton) Thaxter. He married Mabel Gray Thaxter in 1887. Thaxter's personality was influenced greatly by his literary family. His father was a lawyer and an authority who brought the works of the poet Robert Browning to the American public. His mother, Celia Thaxter, was a distinguished poet, most well known for her book An Isla