Robert Scott Troup CMG CIE FRS (13 December 1874 – 1 October 1939) was a British forestry expert. He spent the first part of his career in Colonial India, returning to England in 1920 to head Oxford's School of Forestry.
Troup was educated at Aberdeen Grammar School and the University of Aberdeen. He then entered Cooper's Hill College, which trained engineers and forest conservators for Indian service; there he trained under William Schlich.
Troup joined the Imperial Forestry Service in 1897 and was posted to Burma as a Deputy Conservator of Forests. In 1905, he was appointed Forest Economist at the new Imperial Forest Research Institute and College at Dehra Dun, India. In 1915 he was appointed Assistant Inspector-General of Forests. In 1917–1918 he also served as Controller of Timber Supplies with the Indian Munitions Board.
He ended his Imperial Forestry Service career as Inspector-General of Forests of Burma.
In 1920, Troup returned to