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Concept# Calculation

Summary

A calculation is a deliberate mathematical process that transforms one or more inputs into one or more outputs or results. The term is used in a variety of senses, from the very definite arithmetical calculation of using an algorithm, to the vague heuristics of calculating a strategy in a competition, or calculating the chance of a successful relationship between two people.
For example, multiplying 7 by 6 is a simple algorithmic calculation. Extracting the square root or the cube root of a number using mathematical models is a more complex algorithmic calculation.
Statistical estimations of the likely election results from opinion polls also involve algorithmic calculations, but produces ranges of possibilities rather than exact answers.
To calculate means to determine mathematically in the case of a number or amount, or in the case of an abstract problem to deduce the answer using logic, reason or common sense. The English word derives from the Latin calculus, which originally meant a small stone in the gall-bladder (from Latin calx). It also meant a pebble used for calculating, or a small stone used as a counter in an abacus (Latin abacus, Greek abax). The abacus was an instrument used by Greeks and Romans for arithmetic calculations, preceding the slide-rule and the electronic calculator, and consisted of perforated pebbles sliding on iron bars.
Calculation is a prerequisite for computation.

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Formula

In science, a formula is a concise way of expressing information symbolically, as in a mathematical formula or a chemical formula. The informal use of the term formula in science refers to the general construct of a relationship between given quantities. The plural of formula can be either formulas (from the most common English plural noun form) or, under the influence of scientific Latin, formulae (from the original Latin). In mathematics, a formula generally refers to an equation relating one mathematical expression to another, with the most important ones being mathematical theorems.

Calculator

An electronic calculator is typically a portable electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics. The first solid-state electronic calculator was created in the early 1960s. Pocket-sized devices became available in the 1970s, especially after the Intel 4004, the first microprocessor, was developed by Intel for the Japanese calculator company Busicom. Modern electronic calculators vary from cheap, give-away, credit-card-sized models to sturdy desktop models with built-in printers.

Arithmetic

Arithmetic () is an elementary part of mathematics that consists of the study of the properties of the traditional operations on numbers—addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, exponentiation, and extraction of roots. In the 19th century, Italian mathematician Giuseppe Peano formalized arithmetic with his Peano axioms, which are highly important to the field of mathematical logic today.

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Recently, we have established and used the generalized Littlewood theorem concerning contour integrals of the logarithm of an analytical function to obtain a few new criteria equivalent to the Riemann hypothesis. Here, the same theorem is applied to calcul ...

Michaël Unser, Daniel Andreas Schmitter, Anaïs Laure Marie-Thérèse Badoual

Our motivation is the design of efficient algorithms to process closed curves represented by basis functions or wavelets. To that end, we introduce an inner-product calculus to evaluate correlations and $L _{ 2 }$ distances between such curves. In partic ...

2016We present a method that is based on the Ladd-Frenkel (LF) thermodynamic integration for the study of the rigidity of networks of particles bonded together by short-ranged square well attractive potentials. We show that, by taking the limit of the attracti ...

2008