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Concept# Total sum of squares

Summary

In statistical data analysis the total sum of squares (TSS or SST) is a quantity that appears as part of a standard way of presenting results of such analyses. For a set of observations, , it is defined as the sum over all squared differences between the observations and their overall mean .:
For wide classes of linear models, the total sum of squares equals the explained sum of squares plus the residual sum of squares. For proof of this in the multivariate OLS case, see partitioning in the general OLS model.
In analysis of variance (ANOVA) the total sum of squares is the sum of the so-called "within-samples" sum of squares and "between-samples" sum of squares, i.e., partitioning of the sum of squares.
In multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) the following equation applies
where T is the total sum of squares and products (SSP) matrix, W is the within-samples SSP matrix and B is the between-samples SSP matrix.
Similar terminology may also be used in linear discriminant analysis, where W and B are respectively referred to as the within-groups and between-groups SSP matrices.

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Ontological neighbourhood

, ,

The partition of sums of squares is a concept that permeates much of inferential statistics and descriptive statistics. More properly, it is the partitioning of sums of squared deviations or errors. Mathematically, the sum of squared deviations is an unscaled, or unadjusted measure of dispersion (also called variability). When scaled for the number of degrees of freedom, it estimates the variance, or spread of the observations about their mean value.

In statistics, linear regression is a linear approach for modelling the relationship between a scalar response and one or more explanatory variables (also known as dependent and independent variables). The case of one explanatory variable is called simple linear regression; for more than one, the process is called multiple linear regression. This term is distinct from multivariate linear regression, where multiple correlated dependent variables are predicted, rather than a single scalar variable.

In statistics, a sum of squares due to lack of fit, or more tersely a lack-of-fit sum of squares, is one of the components of a partition of the sum of squares of residuals in an analysis of variance, used in the numerator in an F-test of the null hypothesis that says that a proposed model fits well. The other component is the pure-error sum of squares. The pure-error sum of squares is the sum of squared deviations of each value of the dependent variable from the average value over all observations sharing its independent variable value(s).

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