**Are you an EPFL student looking for a semester project?**

Work with us on data science and visualisation projects, and deploy your project as an app on top of Graph Search.

Concept# X (charge)

Summary

In particle physics, the X charge (or simply X) is a conserved quantum number associated with the SO(10) grand unification theory. It is thought to be conserved in strong, weak, electromagnetic, gravitational, and Higgs interactions. Because the X charge is related to the weak hypercharge, it varies depending on the helicity of a particle. For example, a left-handed quark has an X charge of +1, whereas a right-handed quark can have either an X charge of −1 (for up, charm and top quarks), or −3 (for down, strange and bottom quarks).
X is related to the difference between the baryon number B and the lepton number L (that is, B – L), and the weak hypercharge Y_W via the relation:
Proton decay is a hypothetical form of radioactive decay, predicted by many grand unification theories. During proton decay, the common baryonic proton decays into lighter subatomic particles. However, proton decay has never been experimentally observed and is predicted to be mediated by hypothetical X and Y bosons. Many protonic decay modes have been predicted, one of which is shown below:
This form of decay violates the conservation of both baryon number and lepton number, however the X charge is conserved. Similarly, all experimentally confirmed forms of decay also conserve the X charge value.
The following table lists the X charge values for the standard model fermions and their antiparticles. Note that the CP conjugate of a fermion has the opposite X charge (e.g. vs. , X = −3 vs. +3).
The next table gives the X charge of the standard model bosons.
Although not part of the Standard Model, the GUT X and Y bosons also have zero X charge.

Official source

This page is automatically generated and may contain information that is not correct, complete, up-to-date, or relevant to your search query. The same applies to every other page on this website. Please make sure to verify the information with EPFL's official sources.

Related publications (16)

Related people (27)

Related lectures (7)

Related concepts (1)

This article describes the mathematics of the Standard Model of particle physics, a gauge quantum field theory containing the internal symmetries of the unitary product group SU(3) × SU(2) × U(1). The theory is commonly viewed as describing the fundamental set of particles – the leptons, quarks, gauge bosons and the Higgs boson. The Standard Model is renormalizable and mathematically self-consistent, however despite having huge and continued successes in providing experimental predictions it does leave some unexplained phenomena.

Gauge Theories And Modern Particle Physics

Covers gauge theories, modern particle physics, the standard model, and field content.

Stochastic Programs: Problem Formulation

Discusses the problem formulation of 2-stage stochastic programs and the Benders decomposition algorithm.

Diffie-Hellman Cryptography: Key Exchange and Attacks

Explores Diffie-Hellman key exchange, DDH problem, active attacks, and cryptographic protocol challenges.

We study an attractive scenario, "Sleptonic SUSY", which reconciles the 125 GeV Higgs scalar and the non-observation of superpartners thus far with potentially pivotal roles for slepton phenomenology: providing viable ongoing targets for LHC discovery, inc ...

Jian Wang, Lesya Shchutska, Olivier Schneider, Yiming Li, Yi Zhang, Aurelio Bay, Guido Haefeli, Christoph Frei, Frédéric Blanc, Tatsuya Nakada, Michel De Cian, François Fleuret, Elena Graverini, Renato Quagliani, Federico Betti, Andrea Merli, Aravindhan Venkateswaran, Vitalii Lisovskyi, Sebastian Schulte, Veronica Sølund Kirsebom, Elisabeth Maria Niel, Alexandre Brea Rodriguez, Ettore Zaffaroni, Mingkui Wang, Zhirui Xu, Chao Wang, Lei Zhang, Ho Ling Li, Mark Tobin, Minh Tâm Tran, Niko Neufeld, Matthew Needham, Marc-Olivier Bettler, Maurizio Martinelli, Vladislav Balagura, Donal Patrick Hill, Liang Sun, Pietro Marino, Xiaoxue Han, Liupan An, Federico Leo Redi, Plamen Hristov Hopchev, Maxime Schubiger, Hang Yin, Violaine Bellée, Preema Rennee Pais, Pavol Stefko, Tara Nanut, Maria Elena Stramaglia, Yao Zhou, Tommaso Colombo, Vladimir Macko, Guillaume Max Pietrzyk, Evgenii Shmanin, Maxim Karpov, Simone Meloni, Xiaoqing Zhou, Surapat Ek-In, Carina Trippl, Sara Celani, Marco Guarise, Serhii Cholak, Dipanwita Dutta, Zheng Wang, Yong Yang, Yi Wang, Hao Liu, Hans Dijkstra, Gerhard Raven, Peter Clarke, Frédéric Teubert, Giovanni Carboni, Victor Coco, Shuai Liu, Adam Davis, Paolo Durante, Yu Zheng, Renjie Wang, Anton Petrov, Maxim Borisyak, Feng Jiang, Chen Chen, Zhipeng Tang, Xuan Li, Alexey Boldyrev, Almagul Kondybayeva, Hossein Afsharnia

Long-lived particles decaying to e(+/-) mu(-/+)nu, with masses between 7 and 50 GeV/c(2) and lifetimes between 2 and 50 ps, are searched for by looking at displaced vertices containing electrons and muons of opposite charges. The search is performed using ...

Jian Wang, Olivier Schneider, Yiming Li, Yi Zhang, Aurelio Bay, Guido Haefeli, Christoph Frei, Frédéric Blanc, Tatsuya Nakada, Michel De Cian, Luca Pescatore, François Fleuret, Elena Graverini, Chitsanu Khurewathanakul, Renato Quagliani, Maria Vieites Diaz, Federico Betti, Andrea Merli, Aravindhan Venkateswaran, Luis Miguel Garcia Martin, Vitalii Lisovskyi, Sebastian Schulte, Veronica Sølund Kirsebom, Mingkui Wang, Zhirui Xu, Lei Zhang, Jessica Prisciandaro, Mark Tobin, Minh Tâm Tran, Niko Neufeld, Matthew Needham, Marc-Olivier Bettler, Greig Alan Cowan, Maurizio Martinelli, Vladislav Balagura, Donal Patrick Hill, Liang Sun, Pietro Marino, Mirco Dorigo, Xiaoxue Han, Liupan An, Federico Leo Redi, Plamen Hristov Hopchev, Thibaud Humair, Maxime Schubiger, Hang Yin, Guido Andreassi, Violaine Bellée, Olivier Göran Girard, Axel Kuonen, Preema Rennee Pais, Pavol Stefko, Tara Nanut, Maria Elena Stramaglia, Tommaso Colombo, Vladimir Macko, Guillaume Max Pietrzyk, Evgenii Shmanin, Dipanwita Dutta, Zheng Wang, Yi Wang, Hans Dijkstra, Gerhard Raven, Peter Clarke, Frédéric Teubert, Giovanni Carboni, Victor Coco, Adam Davis, Paolo Durante, Wenyu Zhang, Yu Zheng, Anton Petrov, Maxim Borisyak, Feng Jiang, Chen Chen, Zhipeng Tang

A search is performed for heavy neutrinos in the decay of a W boson into two muons and a jet. The data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of approximately 3.0 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV collected ...