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Concept# RSA (cryptosystem)

Summary

RSA (Rivest–Shamir–Adleman) is a public-key cryptosystem, one of the oldest, that is widely used for secure data transmission. The acronym "RSA" comes from the surnames of Ron Rivest, Adi Shamir and Leonard Adleman, who publicly described the algorithm in 1977. An equivalent system was developed secretly in 1973 at Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) (the British signals intelligence agency) by the English mathematician Clifford Cocks. That system was declassified in 1997.
In a public-key cryptosystem, the encryption key is public and distinct from the decryption key, which is kept secret (private).
An RSA user creates and publishes a public key based on two large prime numbers, along with an auxiliary value. The prime numbers are kept secret. Messages can be encrypted by anyone, via the public key, but can only be decoded by someone who knows the prime numbers.
The security of RSA relies on the practical difficulty of factoring the product of two large prime numbers,

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This course introduces the basics of cryptography. We review several types of cryptographic primitives, when it is safe to use them and how to select the appropriate security parameters. We detail how they work and sketch how they can be implemented.

This course reviews some failure cases in public-key cryptography. It introduces some cryptanalysis techniques. It also presents fundamentals in cryptography such as interactive proofs. Finally, it presents some techniques to validate the security of cryptographic primitives.

The goal of the course is to introduce basic notions from public key cryptography (PKC) as well as basic number-theoretic methods and algorithms for cryptanalysis of protocols and schemes based on PKC.

Alexandre Raphaël Duc, Serge Vaudenay

TCHo is a public-key cryptosystem based on the hardness of finding a multiple polynomial with low weight and on the hardness of distinguishing between the output of an LFSR with noise and some random source. An early version was proposed in 2006 by Finiasz and Vaudenay with non-polynomial (though practical) decryption time. The latest version came in 2007 with more co-authors. It reached competitive (heuristic) polynomial complexity and IND-CPA security. Since then, a key-recovery chosen ciphertext attack was published by Herrmann and Leander in 2009. In this paper we review the state of the art on this cryptosystem, together with some latest improvements regarding implementation and selection of parameters. We provide also more formal results regarding correctness and we update the key generation algorithm.

The main topic of this thesis is related to the state of the art in designing cryptographic primitives from a hardware point of view. A special emphasis is dedicated to low-power/low-energy CMOS design. A set of solutions is proposed including an LFSR based stream cipher with self-synchronizing capabilities, a new memory-less Rijndael block cipher architecture and a public key scheme in the class of discrete logarithm. The former is based on arithmetic in large finite field, mainly Galois extension field GF(2‴). These solutions are droved using low-energy techniques, in order to decrease both the switching activity and the total delay. The fundamental motivation supporting this work, is to demonstrate that practical solutions can be obtained for implementing such complex primitives in large scaled circuits, that arc at once, high performance architectures (low-power, high-speed) and cryptographicaly strong, using the well known trade-off between area-speed or area-power. Security constraint has been duly considered, mainly by increasing the key-size. In this work, we explore the general aspects of designing the above mentioned cryptographic functions. We give an extensive survey of some cryptographic primitives from the hardware point of view and expose their security properties. The thesis favours stream cipher and public-key schemes, as currently the most promising advance to capture the notion of key generation and establishment and data bulk encryption. One contribution is the convenient notation for expressing cryptographic self-synchronizing stream ciphers SSSC schemes and our SSMG proposal, a scheme based on packet fingerprint identification, that relies on keyed cryptographic hash function to achieve the security requirements. We maintain an important distinction between hardware implementation and algorithm's security, because the security of cryptographic primitives cannot be based on mathematically strong functions only but requires an extensive cryptanalysis at different levels including the application. This causes a concern for a formalization of the security of an implemented cryptographic primitive. Nevertheless, while some schemes arc well known to be secure such as DL based public key schemes and enough cryptanalyzed such as the new standard Rijndael, some security aspects of the SSMG are discussed. A part of this work studies the specific aspects related to hardware implementation of Rijndael block cipher, the new standard designed to be a substitute for DES. An efficient architecture is developed targeting FPGA implementation, by simply avoiding memory blocks dedicated to the implementation of S-boxes and replacing them by on-chip forward computation using composite Galois field. This technique helps to reduce considerably the amount of hardware required at the cost of little increase of the switching activity. The main conclusion is that, while security constraint of cryptographic primitives increases the hardware complexity and reduces the performances, practical solutions exist for reducing such complexities while keeping or increasing the level of security. Nevertheless, major open questions remain both for a firm theoretical foundation and the proper cryptanalysis of certain solutions.

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Many post-quantum cryptosystems which have been proposed in the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NISI) standardization process follow the same meta-algorithm, but in different algebras or different encoding methods. They usually propose two constructions, one being weaker and the other requiring a random oracle. We focus on the weak version of nine submissions to NISI. Submitters claim no security when the secret key is used several times. In this paper, we analyze how easy it is to run a key recovery under multiple key reuse. We mount a classical key recovery under plaintext checking attacks (i.e., with a plaintext checking oracle saying if a given ciphertext decrypts well to a given plaintext) and a quantum key recovery under chosen ciphertext attacks. In the latter case, we assume quantum access to the decryption oracle.