Abd al-Rahman I ibn Mu’awiya (in full: Abd al-Rahman ibn Mu'awiya ibn Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; 7 March 731 – 30 September 788; Arabic: عبد الرحمن الأول) was the founder of the Umayyad dynasty that ruled the greater part of Iberia in Al-Andalus for nearly three centuries (including the succeeding Caliphate of Córdoba). Abd al-Rahman was a member of the Umayyad dynasty in Damascus, and his establishment of a government in Iberia represented a break with the Abbasids, who had overthrown the Umayyads in Damascus in 750.
He was also known by the surnames al-Dakhil ("the Entrant"), Saqr Quraish ("the Falcon of Quraysh") and as Saqr al-Andalus ("the Falcon of Andalusia"). Variations of the spelling of his name include Abd ar-Rahman, Abdul Rahman I, Abdar Rahman, and Abderraman.
Flight from Damascus
Abd al-Rahman was born in Palmyra, near Damascus in the heartland of the Umayyad Caliphate, the son of the Umayyad prince Mu'awiya ibn Hisham and his concu