Concept

Liskov substitution principle

Summary
The Liskov substitution principle (LSP) is a particular definition of a subtyping relation, called strong behavioral subtyping, that was initially introduced by Barbara Liskov in a 1987 conference keynote address titled Data abstraction and hierarchy. It is based on the concept of "substitutability" a principle in object-oriented programming stating that an object (such as a class) may be replaced by a sub-object (such as a class that extends the first class) without breaking the program. It is a semantic rather than merely syntactic relation, because it intends to guarantee semantic interoperability of types in a hierarchy, object types in particular. Barbara Liskov and Jeannette Wing described the principle succinctly in a 1994 paper as follows: Subtype Requirement: Let \phi(x) be a property provable about objects x of type T. Then \phi(y) should be true for objects y of type S where S is a subtype of T. Symbolically: :S \leq T \to \forall x {:} T . \phi(x) \to \for
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