**Are you an EPFL student looking for a semester project?**

Work with us on data science and visualisation projects, and deploy your project as an app on top of GraphSearch.

Concept# Time crystal

Summary

In condensed matter physics, a time crystal is a quantum system of particles whose lowest-energy state is one in which the particles are in repetitive motion. The system cannot lose energy to the environment and come to rest because it is already in its quantum ground state. Because of this, the motion of the particles does not really represent kinetic energy like other motion; it has "motion without energy". Time crystals were first proposed theoretically by Frank Wilczek in 2012 as a time-based analogue to common crystals – whereas the atoms in crystals are arranged periodically in space, the atoms in a time crystal are arranged periodically in both space and time. Several different groups have demonstrated matter with stable periodic evolution in systems that are periodically driven. In terms of practical use, time crystals may one day be used as quantum computer memory.
The existence of crystals in nature is a manifestation of spontaneous symmetry breaking, which occurs when the

Official source

This page is automatically generated and may contain information that is not correct, complete, up-to-date, or relevant to your search query. The same applies to every other page on this website. Please make sure to verify the information with EPFL's official sources.

Related publications

Loading

Related people

Loading

Related units

Loading

Related concepts

Loading

Related courses

Loading

Related lectures

Loading

Related people (1)

Related concepts (5)

Zero-point energy

Zero-point energy (ZPE) is the lowest possible energy that a quantum mechanical system may have. Unlike in classical mechanics, quantum systems constantly fluctuate in their lowest energy state as

Laws of thermodynamics

The laws of thermodynamics are a set of scientific laws which define a group of physical quantities, such as temperature, energy, and entropy, that characterize thermodynamic systems in thermodynami

Conservation of energy

In physics and chemistry, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant; it is said to be conserved over time. Energy can neither be created no

Related courses (14)

MSE-215: Mise en oeuvre des matériaux II

Introduction aux relations mise en œuvre-structures-propriétés des polymères, céramiques et métaux, fournissant les bases nécessaires à la sélection de matériaux et procédés pour la fabrication de composants en microtechnique.

ME-469: Nano-scale heat transfer

In this course we study heat transfer (and energy conversion) from a microscopic perspective. This allows us to understand why classical laws (i.e. Fourier Law) are what they are and what are their limits of validity . We will then discuss emerging opprotunities in nanoscale devices.

MSE-310: Deformation of materials

Présentation des mécanismes de déformation des matériaux inorganiques: élasticité, plasticité, fluage.

Related publications (11)

Loading

Loading

Loading

Related lectures (20)

Related units (1)

The exploration of open quantum many-body systems -systems of microscopic size exhibiting quantum coherence and interacting with their surrounding- has emerged as a key research area over the last years. The recent advances in controlling and preserving quantum coherence at the level of a single particle, developed in a wide variety of physical platforms, have been a major driving force in this field. The driven dissipative nature is a common characteristic of a wide class of modern experimental platforms in quantum science and technology, such as photonic systems, ultracold atoms, optomechanical systems, or superconducting circuits. The interplay between the coherent quantum dynamics and dissipation in open quantum systems leads to a wide range of novel out-of-equilibrium behaviours. Among them, the emergence in these systems of dynamical phases with novel broken symmetries, topological phases and the occurrence of dissipative phase transitions are of particular interest. This thesis aims at establishing a theoretical framework to engineer, characterize and control nonclassical states of light in photonic quantum optical networks in different regimes. The emphasis is put on its implementation, in particular with respect to integration and scalability in photonic platforms. In this thesis, we tackle some interesting aspects arising in the study of the dynamics of driven dissipative coupled nonlinear optical resonators. In that context, we consider the dynamics of two coupled nonlinear photonic cavities in the presence of inhomogeneous coherent driving and local dissipations using the Lindblad master equation formalism.We show that this simple open quantum many-body system can be subject to dynamical instabilities. In particular, our analysis shows that this system presents highly nonclassical properties and its dynamics exhibits dissipative Kerr solitons (DKSs), characterized by the robustness of its specific temporal or spatial waveform during propagation.In a second step, our intuition gained from this system composed of only few degrees of freedom is expanded to the study of systems of bigger size. In particular, we study DKSs originating from the parametric gain in Kerr microresonators. While DKSs are usually described using a classical mean-field approach, our work proposes a quantum-mechanical model formulated in terms of the truncated Wigner formalism. This analysis is motivated by the fact that technological implementations push towards the realization of DKSs in miniaturized integrated systems. These are operating at low power, a regime where quantum effects are expected to be relevant. Using the tools provided by the theory of open quantum systems, we propose a detailed investigation of the impact of quantum fluctuations on the spectral and dynamical properties of DKSs. We show that the quantum fluctuations arising from losses engender a finite lifetime to the soliton, and demonstrate that DKSs correspond to a specific class of dissipative time crystals.

Riccardo Rota, Vincenzo Savona, Kilian Robert Seibold

We investigate the behavior of two coupled nonlinear photonic cavities, in the presence of inhomogeneous coherent driving and local dissipations. By solving numerically the quantum master equation, either by diagonalizing the Liouvillian superoperator or by using the approximated truncated Wigner approach, we extrapolate the properties of the system in a thermodynamic limit of large photon occupation. When the mean-field Gross-Pitaevskii equation predicts a unique parametrically unstable steady-state solution, the open quantum many-body system presents highly nonclassical properties and its dynamics exhibits the long-lived Josephson-like oscillations typical of dissipative time crystals, as indicated by the presence of purely imaginary eigenvalues in the spectrum of the Liouvillian superoperator in the thermodynamic limit.

, , ,

Dissipative Kerr solitons arising from parametric gain in ring microresonators are usually described within a classical mean-field framework. Here, we develop a quantum-mechanical model of dissipative Kerr solitons in terms of the Lindblad master equation and study the model via the truncated Wigner method, which accounts for quantum effects to leading order. We show that, within this open quantum system framework, the soliton experiences a finite coherence time due to quantum fluctuations originating from losses. Reading the results in terms of the theory of open quantum systems allows us to estimate the Liouvillian spectrum of the system. It is characterized by a set of eigenvalues with a finite imaginary part and a vanishing real part in the limit of vanishing quantum fluctuations. This feature shows that dissipative Kerr solitons are a specific class of dissipative time crystals.