Concept

Poling (metallurgy)

Summary
A metallurgical method employed in the purification of copper which contains copper oxide as an impurity and also in the purification of tin which contains tin oxide (stannic oxide or "SnO2") as an impurity. The impure metal, usually in the form of molten blister copper, is placed in an anode furnace for two stages of refining. In the first stage, sulphur and iron are removed by gently blowing air through the molten metal to form iron oxides and sulfur dioxide. The iron oxides are skimmed or poured off the top of the copper and the gaseous sulfur dioxide exits the furnace via the off-gas system. Once the first oxidation stage is complete, the second stage (reduction or poling) begins. This involves using a reducing agent, normally natural gas or diesel (but ammonia, liquid petroleum gas, and naphtha can also be used), to react with the oxygen in the copper oxide to form copper . In the past, freshly cut ("green") trees were used as wooden po
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