Summary
A high-pass filter (HPF) is an electronic filter that passes signals with a frequency higher than a certain cutoff frequency and attenuates signals with frequencies lower than the cutoff frequency. The amount of attenuation for each frequency depends on the filter design. A high-pass filter is usually modeled as a linear time-invariant system. It is sometimes called a low-cut filter or bass-cut filter in the context of audio engineering. High-pass filters have many uses, such as blocking DC from circuitry sensitive to non-zero average voltages or radio frequency devices. They can also be used in conjunction with a low-pass filter to produce a band-pass filter. In the optical domain filters are often characterised by wavelength rather than frequency. High-pass and low-pass have the opposite meanings, with a "high-pass" filter (more commonly "long-pass") passing only longer wavelengths (lower frequencies), and vice versa for "low-pass" (more commonly "short-pass"). In electronics, a filter is a two-port electronic circuit which removes frequency components from a signal (time-varying voltage or current) applied to its input port. A high-pass filter attenuates frequency components below a certain frequency, called its cutoff frequency, allowing higher frequency components to pass through. This contrasts with a low-pass filter, which attenuates frequencies higher than a certain frequency, and a bandpass filter, which allows a certain band of frequencies through and attenuates frequencies both higher and lower than the band. In optics a high pass filter is a transparent or translucent window of colored material that allows light longer than a certain wavelength to pass through and attenuates light of shorter wavelengths. Since light is often measured not by frequency but by wavelength, which is inversely related to frequency, a high pass optical filter, which attenuates light frequencies below a cutoff frequency, is often called a short-pass filter; it attenuates longer wavelengths.
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