Concept

Lactarius turpis

Summary
Lactarius turpis (also L. plumbeus or L. necator) is commonly known as the ugly milk-cap in English. It is found naturally in Europe and Siberia, and has been introduced to Australia and New Zealand. While especially associated with birch, it is also found with spruce, pine and other trees in mixed woodland. The messy, dirty appearance, seen in the photograph, is characteristic of the species and gives it its English name and the Latin species epithet, turpis. It seems to collect debris on top and the gills acquire a dirty brownish stain due to discoloured milk. Taxonomy and naming This very variable mushroom demonstrates a common phenomenon in mycology as there is much disagreement over naming. The three main scientific designations: *Lactarius turpis Fr., *Lactarius necator (Bull.:Fr.) Karsten, and *Lactarius plumbeus (Bull.:Fr.) S. F. Gray, are usually, but not always, considered to be synonyms for same species. The epithets necator and plumbeus were both coined by Pierr
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