Concept

Sydney Harbour defences

Summary
Sydney Harbour was protected by coastal batteries and other fixed defences from the early 19th century until the 1960s. These defences were constructed to protect the Australian city of Sydney from attack by enemy warships and submarines. Pre-Federation defences Sydney's earliest fortifications were built around Sydney Cove to protect the new colony of Sydney from attacks from non-British ships or convict uprisings. In 1791 the Dawes Point Battery was meant to be the first line of defence against an attack by the Spanish Empire, while Fort Macquarie was an upgraded from an early fort built in the same time to a larger one in 1798. A gun emplacement was built in 1801 on Middle Head (north of Obelisk Bay) during the Napoleonic Wars, as well as another one at Georges Head. Fort Phillip was also built to protect from a potential French invasion in 1804, as well as following the Castle Hill convict rebellion the same year. More permanent fortifications were built during the fi
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