Concept

Congenital nephrotic syndrome

Summary
Congenital nephrotic syndrome is a rare kidney disease which manifests in infants during the first 3 months of life, and is characterized by high levels of protein in the urine (proteinuria), low levels of protein in the blood, and swelling. This disease is primarily caused by genetic mutations which result in damage to components of the glomerular filtration barrier and allow for leakage of plasma proteins into the urinary space. Signs and symptoms Urine protein loss leads to total body swelling (generalized edema) and abdominal distension in the first several weeks to months of life. Fluid retention may lead to cough (from pulmonary edema), ascites, and widened cranial sutures and fontanelles. High urine protein loss can lead to foamy appearance of urine. Infants may be born prematurely with low birth weight, and have meconium stained amniotic fluid or a large placenta. Complications
  • Frequent, severe infection
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