Concept

Hamhung

Summary
Hamhŭng (Hamhŭng-si; hamɣɯŋ) is North Korea's second-most populous city, and the capital of South Hamgyŏng Province. It has an estimated population of 768,551. Located in the southern part of the South Hamgyong province, Hamhung is the main and most populous metropolitan area in the province. Hamhung is known by North Koreans as a great area of architectural construction that was centrally planned, and built by the government of North Korea. Hamhŭng is divided into 7 guyŏk (wards): Hamhŭng is on the left branch of the Sŏngch'ŏn River, on the eastern part of the Hamhŭng plain (함흥평야), in South Hamgyŏng Province, northeast North Korea. Its highest point is Mount Tonghŭng, which is high. Hamhung has a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dwa), with warm, humid summers, and moderately cold, dry winters. Being located by the East Sea, its climate is directly influenced by it, resulting in warmer winters and cooler summers than areas similar in latitude on the western coast. The longer period of warmer temperatures benefit the growing of crops. The city was called either Hamju (as recorded in 1108, the third year of King Yejeong) or Hamjumok (as recorded in 1369, 18th year of King Gongmin). It received its current name of Hamhung in 1416, when it was promoted to a 'bu'. The Sino-Korean word '흥' (Hancha: 興), added to the original name of Hamju, means that the town would prosper. Yi Seong-gye, founder of the Yi dynasty, retired to the city after a successful palace coup by his son Yi Bang-won in 1400. Though his son sent envoys to reconcile, his father had them killed. A modern Korean expression, 'King's envoy to Hamhŭng' () , refers to a person who goes on a journey and is never heard from again. It was known as Kankō during Japanese rule of Korea between 1910 and 1945. It was liberated by the Red Army on 22 August 1945. The city was 80–90% destroyed by American air raids during the Korean War (1950–1953) and was occupied by ROK troops between 17 October 1950 and 17 December 1950.
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