Concept

Miniature model (gaming)

Summary
In miniature wargaming, players enact simulated battles using scale models called miniature models, which can be anywhere from 2 to 54 mm in height, to represent warriors, vehicles, artillery, buildings, and terrain. These models are colloquially referred to as miniatures or minis. Miniature models are commonly made of metal, plastic, or paper. They are used to augment the visual aspects of a game and track position, facing, and line of sight of characters. Miniatures are typically painted and can be artfully sculpted, making them collectible in their own right. Pre-painted plastic figures, such as Clix miniatures produced by WizKids and unpainted plastic figures for Warhammer by Games Workshop, have become popular. The hobby of painting, collecting, and playing with miniatures originated with toy soldiers, though the latter were generally sold pre-painted. Miniature models are derived from toy soldiers which were constructed of a variety of materials, These toy figures came to be mass produced from tin in late 1700s Germany, where they were called Zinnsoldaten (lit. "tin soldiers"). These early figures were flat models commonly called "flats", and became quite common in western Europe. By the mid 1800s manufactures in several countries were producing 3d miniatures of tin and lead alloys, common called white metal. In the 20th century miniatures would also be manufactured from plastic and composite materials. In 1993, the New York legislature introduced a bill outlawing lead in miniatures, citing public health concerns. Many miniature manufacturers, anticipating that other states would also impose bans, began making figures with lead-free alloys, often at increased prices. After months of debate and protests by miniature manufacturers and enthusiasts, New York Governor Mario Cuomo signed a bill which exempted miniatures from the state's public health law. Despite this, most American manufacturers continued to use non-lead alloys. Some wargames use "box miniatures", consisting of card stock folded into simple cuboids with representative art printed on the outside.
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