Concept

Ivanovo

Summary
Ivanovo (Иваново, ɪˈvanəvə) is a city in Russia. It is the administrative center and largest city of Ivanovo Oblast, located northeast of Moscow and approximately from Yaroslavl, Vladimir and Kostroma. Ivanovo has a population of 361,644 as of the 2021 Census, making it the 50th largest city in Russia. Until 1932, it was previously known as Ivanovo-Voznesensk. It is the youngest city of the Golden Ring of Russia. The city lies on the Uvod River, in the centre of the eponymous oblast. Ivanovo gained city status in 1871, and emerged as a major centre for textile production and began to be referred as the "Russian Manchester". The city is served by Ivanovo Yuzhny Airport. The Uvod River, a tributary of the Klyazma, flows from north to south, dividing the city into two halves. There are also two rivers in Ivanovo: the Talka and the Kharinka. The city is first mentioned in 1561, when it was given to the Cherkassky princely family by Ivan IV, after the latter's marriage to Maria Cherkasskaya. However, the relevant document has since been lost. The modern city was created by merging the old flax-processing village Ivanovo with the industrial Voznesensky Posad in 1871. Yakov Garelin—a patron of arts, historian, manufacturer, and public figure—is considered to be the founder of the city and its second head. Under his leadership, the city began to develop, industrialise, and grow. Until 1932, the official name of the city was Ivanovo-Voznesensk. Because of its textile manufacturing industry, Ivanovo earned the sobriquet of the "Russian Manchester" during the 19th century. By the early 20th century, Ivanovo was competing with Łódź (also a part of the Russian Empire at that time) for the title of the primary textile production center of Europe. As the workers' living conditions were appalling, the strikes were frequent. One of these strikes (May 14-July 22, 1905) led to the first Russian revolution. According to the Soviet historiography, the Ivanovo Soviet (created on May 28, 1905) was one of the first soviets in history.
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