Concept

Ebolavirus

Summary
The genus Ebolavirus (iˈboʊlə- or əˈboʊləˌvaɪrəs; - or ) is a virological taxon included in the family Filoviridae (filament-shaped viruses), order Mononegavirales. The members of this genus are called ebolaviruses, and encode their genome in the form of single-stranded negative-sense RNA. The six known virus species are named for the region where each was originally identified: Bundibugyo ebolavirus, Reston ebolavirus, Sudan ebolavirus, Taï Forest ebolavirus (originally Côte d'Ivoire ebolavirus), Zaire ebolavirus, and Bombali ebolavirus. The last is the most recent species to be named and was isolated from Angolan free-tailed bats in Sierra Leone. Each species of the genus Ebolavirus has one member virus, and four of these cause Ebola virus disease (EVD) in humans, a type of hemorrhagic fever having a very high case fatality rate. The Reston virus has caused EVD in other primates. Zaire ebolavirus has the highest mortality rate of the ebolaviruses and is responsible for the largest number of outbreaks of the six known species of the genus, including the 1976 Zaire outbreak and the outbreak with the most deaths (2014). Ebolaviruses were first described after outbreaks of EVD in southern Sudan in June 1976 and in Zaire in August 1976. The name Ebolavirus is derived from the Ebola River in Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo), near the location of the 1976 outbreak, and the taxonomic suffix -virus (denoting a viral genus). This genus was introduced in 1998 as the "Ebola-like viruses". In 2002, the name was changed to Ebolavirus and in 2010, the genus was emended. Ebolaviruses are closely related to marburgviruses. Ebolavirus is a filamentous, enveloped virus within the order Mononegavirales which also contains rabies and measles viruses. This order is characterized by non-segmented, single-stranded negative-sense RNA (-ssRNA) genomes that are surrounded by a helical nucleocapsid. Filoviruses encode seven different proteins that include: NP (nucleoprotein), VP35 (part of the polymerase complex), VP40 (matrix protein), GP (glycoprotein spike), VP30 (transcription activator), VP42 (second matrix protein), and L (RdRp).
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