Concept

Skardu

Summary
Skardu (སྐར་མདོ་་; , skərduː) is a city located in Pakistani-administered Gilgit−Baltistan in the disputed Kashmir region. Skardu serves as the capital of Skardu District and the Baltistan Division. It is situated at an average elevation of nearly above sea level in the Skardu Valley, at the confluence of the Indus and Shigar Rivers. The city is an important gateway to the eight-thousanders of the nearby Karakoram mountain range. The Indus River running through the region separates the Karakoram from the Ladakh Range. The name "Skardu" is believed to be derived from the Balti word meaning "a lowland between two high places." The two referenced "high places" are Shigar city, and the high-altitude Satpara Lake Local people might tend to write the name as སྐར་དོ་ according to how they pronounce it. But the meaning of which as it said above, corresponds to the Tibetan word མདོ. In the course of the history of Balti, bilabial sound /m/ as a prefix has lost, and the vowel /o/ has turned into /u/, same as many other dialects of Tibetan. The first mention of Skardu dates to the first half of the 16th century. Mirza Haidar (1499–1551) described Askardu in the 16th-century text Tarikh-i-Rashidi Baltistan as a district of the area. The first mention of Skardu in European literature was made by Frenchman François Bernier (1625–1688), who mentions the city by the name of Eskerdou. After his mention, Skardu was quickly drawn into Asian maps produced in Europe, and was first mentioned as Eskerdow the map "Indiae orientalis nec non insularum adiacentium nova descriptio" publisbed by the Dutch engraver Nicolaes Visscher II between 1680 and 1700. The Skardu Valley, at the confluence of the Indus and Shigar Rivers, is wide by long. Active erosion in the nearby Karakoram Mountains has resulted in enormous deposits of sediment throughout the Skardu valley. Glaciers from the Indus and Shigar valleys broadened the Skardu valley between 3.2 million years ago up to the Holocene approximately 11,700 years ago by scientists estimate.
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