Summary
Helminthiasis, also known as worm infection, is any macroparasitic disease of humans and other animals in which a part of the body is infected with parasitic worms, known as helminths. There are numerous species of these parasites, which are broadly classified into tapeworms, flukes, and roundworms. They often live in the gastrointestinal tract of their hosts, but they may also burrow into other organs, where they induce physiological damage. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis and schistosomiasis are the most important helminthiases, and are among the neglected tropical diseases. These group of helminthiases have been targeted under the joint action of the world's leading pharmaceutical companies and non-governmental organizations through a project launched in 2012 called the London Declaration on Neglected Tropical Diseases, which aimed to control or eradicate certain neglected tropical diseases by 2020. Helminthiasis has been found to result in poor birth outcome, poor cognitive development, poor school and work performance, poor socioeconomic development, and poverty. Chronic illness, malnutrition, and anemia are further examples of secondary effects. Soil-transmitted helminthiases are responsible for parasitic infections in as much as a quarter of the human population worldwide. One well-known example of soil-transmitted helminthiases is ascariasis. Of all the known helminth species, the most important helminths with respect to understanding their transmission pathways, their control, inactivation and enumeration in samples of human excreta from dried feces, faecal sludge, wastewater, and sewage sludge are: soil-transmitted helminths, including Ascaris lumbricoides (the most common worldwide), Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, Strongyloides stercoralis and Ancylostoma duodenale Hymenolepis nana Taenia saginata Enterobius Fasciola hepatica Schistosoma mansoni Toxocara canis Toxocara cati Helminthiases are classified as follows (the disease names end with "-sis" and the causative worms are in brackets): Filariasis (Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi infection) Onchocerciasis (Onchocerca volvulus infection) Soil-transmitted helminthiasis – this includes ascariasis (Ascaris lumbricoides infection), trichuriasis (Trichuris infection), and hookworm infection (includes necatoriasis and Ancylostoma duodenale infection) Trichostrongyliasis (Trichostrongylus spp.
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