Concept

Ludwig Heinrich Bojanus

Summary
Ludwig Heinrich Bojanus Latinized as Ludovicus Henricus Bojanus (16 July 1776 – 2 April 1827) was a Franco-German physician, comparative anatomist, and naturalist who spent most of his active career teaching veterinary medicine at Vilnius University in Tsarist Russia. His greatest work was a two-volume folio on the anatomy of the turtle Emys orbicularis published in 1819 and 1821. The Organ of Bojanus of molluscs is named after him. The Triassic mammal Lisowicia bojani was named in his honour in 2019. Bojanus was born at Bouxwiller in Alsace, to Johann Jakob Bojanus (1740–1820) and Marie Eleonore Magdalene Kromayer. His younger sister Louise Friederike (1789–1880) married into the influential Merck family of Darmstadt. The family of Lutherans fled along with to Darmstadt during the French invasion of Alsace in 1789. He finished his secondary education in Darmstadt and studied medicine at the University of Jena (Dr. med., 1797). In 1804 he was appointed professor of veterinary medicine at the University of Vilnius, a post which he could assume only in 1806. In 1812 he fled to St Petersburg when Vilnius was invaded by Napoleon's army and returned only in 1814. He began to teach comparative anatomy from 1814. In 1822 he was appointed rector of the university. Two years later, on medical advice, he returned to Darmstadt, where he died on 2 April 1827, a year after the death of his wife who took care of his medical needs. Bojanus produced 70 works on anatomy and veterinary medicine with the most influential work being an illustrated book on the anatomy of turtles, Anatome Testudinis Europaeae (1819, 1821). This had 50 plates, illustrated on his own, on the anatomy of the European pond turtle Emys orbicularis based on dissections of at least 500 turtles according to his student and biographer Adam Ferdynand Adamowicz (1802–1881). He initially considered dedicating the book to Georges Cuvier but decided not to later, possibly due to the troubles he had faced from the French and due to his allegiance to Tsarist Russia.
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