Concept

Isparta

Summary
Isparta is a city in western Turkey. It is the seat of Isparta Province and Isparta District. Its population is 247,580 (2022). Its elevation is 1035 m. It is known as the "City of Roses". Isparta is well-connected to other parts of Turkey via roads. Antalya lies 130 km to the south and Eskişehir is 350 km to the north. Süleyman Demirel University has introduced thousands of youths from varied backgrounds to the city's mostly conservative fabric in recent years. The city's football team, Ispartaspor, plays in Group 7 of the Turkish Regional Amateur League. Isparta is a Turkish spelling of Greek Sparta, by prothesis declustering. Isparta was said to correspond to the ancient city of Baris, which is a namesake and was part of the Roman province of Pisidia. A later theory has it instead as the Eastern Roman fortress Saporda; in Muslim sources it appears as Sabarta. GE Bean characterized the situation thus: "These perpetually shifting conceptions leave the reader quite bewildered." Modern scholars locate Baris near Kılıç, in Keçiborlu district, Isparta province. At an early stage it became a Christian bishopric, a suffragan of the Metropolitan see of Antioch of Pisidia, the capital of the province. The names of two of its bishops are known with certainty: Heraclius participated in the First Council of Nicaea in 325 and Leo in the Second Council of Nicaea in 787. In addition, Paulus was at the Council of Constantinople (869) and Stephanus was at the Council of Constantinople (879), but one or both of these may have been of the Baris in the Roman province of Hellespontus. Like most sees in Asia Minor, it faded away. 1071: Conquered by the Seljuk Turks. Late 13th century: Becomes part of the Hamidids. 1381: Isparta is sold to the Ottoman sultan Murad I by the Hamidid Emir. Late 19th century: Muslim refugees from the Balkans settle around Isparta. The Bulgarian refugees brought the knowledge of kazanlik rosewater production with them, leading to Isparta's nickname: city of roses.
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