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Course# PHYS-453: Quantum electrodynamics and quantum optics

Summary

This course on one hand develops the quantum theory of electromagnetic radiation from the principles of quantum electrodynamics. It will cover basis historic developments (coherent states, squeezed states, quantum theory of spontaneous emission) and moreover modern developments, e.g. quantum noise.

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Instructor

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Tobias Kippenberg

Tobias J. Kippenberg is Full Professor of Physics at EPFL and leads the Laboratory of Photonics and Quantum Measurement. He obtained his BA at the RWTH Aachen, and MA and PhD at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech in Pasadena, USA). From 2005- 2009 he lead an Independent Research Group at the MPI of Quantum Optics, and is at EPFL since. His research interest are the Science and Applications of ultra high Q microcavities; in particular with his research group he discovered chip-scale Kerr frequency comb generation (Nature 2007, Science 2011) and observed radiation pressure backaction effects in microresonators that now developed into the field of cavity optomechanics (Science 2008). Tobias Kippenberg is alumni of the “Studienstiftung des Deutschen Volkes”. For his invention of “chip-scale frequency combs” he received he Helmholtz Price for Metrology (2009) and the EFTF Young Investigator Award (2010). For his research on cavity optomechanics, he received the EPS Fresnel Prize (2009). In addition he is recipient of the ICO Prize in Optics (2014), the Swiss National Latsis award (2015), the German Wilhelm Klung Award (2015) and ZEISS Research Award (2018). He is fellow of the APS and OSA, and listed since 2014 in the Thomas Reuters highlycited.com in the domain of Physics. EDUCATION 2009: Habilitation (Venia Legendi) in Physics, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München 2004: PhD, California Institute of Technology (Advisor Professor Kerry Vahala) 2000: Master of Science (Applied Physics), California Institute of Technology 1998: BA in Physics, Technical University of Aachen (RWTH), Germany 1998: BA in Electrical Engineering, Technical University of Aachen (RWTH), Germany ACADEMIC POSITIONS 2013 - present: Full Professor EPFL 2010 - 2012: Associate Professor EPFL 2008 - 2010: Tenure Track Assistant Professor, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne 2007 - present: Marie Curie Excellent Grant Team Leader, Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Division of Prof.T.W. Hänsch) 2005 - present: Leader of an Independent Junior Research Group, Max Planck Institute 2005- present: Habilitant (Prof. Hänsch) Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität (LMU) 2005-2006: Postdoctoral Scholar, Center for the Physics of Information, California Institute of Technology 2000-2004: Graduate Research Assistant, California Institute of Technology PRIZES AND HONORS: ZEISS Research Award 2018 Fellow of the APS 2016 Klung-Wilhelmy Prize 2015 Swiss Latsis Prize 2014 Selected Thomson Reuters Highly Cited Researcher in Physics, 2014/2015 ICO Prize, 2013 EFTF Young Scientist Award (for "invention of microresonator based frequency combs") 2010 Fresnel Prize of the European Physical Society (for contributions to Optomechanics) 2009 Helmholtz Prize for Metrology (for invention of the monolithic frequency comb) 2009 1st Prize winner of the EU Contest for Young Scientists, Helsinki, Finland. Sept. 1996 Jugend forscht 1st Physics Prize at the German National Science Contest May 1996 FELLOWSHIPS Fellow of the German National Merit Foundation ("Studienstiftung des Deutschen Volkes") 1998-2002 Member of the Daimler-Chysler-Fellowship-Organization 1998-2002 Dr. Ulderup Fellowship 1999-2000 RESEARCH INTERESTS Experimental and theoretical research in photonics, notably high Q optical microcavities and their use in cavity quantum optomechanics and frequency metrology PUBLICATIONS AND OFTEN CITED METRICS*: >70 Publications in peer reviewed journals Researcher Google Profile: http://scholar.google.ch/citations?user=PRCbG2kAAAAJ&hl=en h-Index 54 (Google scholar H: 64, >25,000 citations) Thomson Reuters/Claravite List of Highly Cited Researchers (2014,2015,2016,2017) *careful in its use: https://www.aps.org/publications/apsnews/201411/backpage.cfm* KEY PUBLICATIONS AND REVIEWS: A. Ghadimi, et al. Elastic strain engineering for ultra high Q nanomechanical oscillators Science, (2018) Trocha, et al. Ultrafast distance measurements using soliton microresonator frequency combs Science, Vol. 359 (2018) [joint work with C. Koos] Pablo-Marin et al. Microresonator-based solitons for massively parallel coherent optical communications Nature (2017) [joint work with C. Koos] V. Brasch, et al. Photonic chip-based optical frequency comb using soliton Cherenkov radiation. Science, vol. 351, num. 6271 (2015) Aspelmeyer, M., Kippenberg, T. J. & Marquardt, F. Cavity optomechanics. Reviews of Modern Physics 86, 1391-1452, (2014) Wilson, D. J. et al. Measurement and control of a mechanical oscillator at its thermal decoherence rate. Nature (2014). Verhagen, E., Deleglise, S., Weis, S., Schliesser, A. & Kippenberg, T. J. Quantum-coherent coupling of a mechanical oscillator to an optical cavity mode. Nature 482, 63-67 (2012). Kippenberg, T. J., Holzwarth, R. & Diddams, S. A. Microresonator-based optical frequency combs. Science 332, 555-559, (2011). Weis, S. et al. Optomechanically induced transparency. Science 330, 1520-1523 (2010). Kippenberg, T. J. & Vahala, K. J. Cavity optomechanics: back-action at the mesoscale. Science 321, 1172-1176, (2008). Del'Haye, P. et al. Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator. Nature (2007) Schliesser, A., DelHaye, P., Nooshi, N., Vahala, K. & Kippenberg, T. Radiation Pressure Cooling of a Micromechanical Oscillator Using Dynamical Backaction. Physical Review Letters 97, (2006).

Fermion

In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics. Generally, it has a half-odd-integer spin: spin 1/2, spin 3/2, etc. In addition, these particles obey the Pauli exclusion principle. Fermions include all quarks and leptons and all composite particles made of an odd number of these, such as all baryons and many atoms and nuclei. Fermions differ from bosons, which obey Bose–Einstein statistics. Some fermions are elementary particles (such as electrons), and some are composite particles (such as protons).

Quantum correlation

In quantum mechanics, quantum correlation is the expected value of the product of the alternative outcomes. In other words, it is the expected change in physical characteristics as one quantum system passes through an interaction site. In John Bell's 1964 paper that inspired the Bell test, it was assumed that the outcomes A and B could each only take one of two values, -1 or +1. It followed that the product, too, could only be -1 or +1, so that the average value of the product would be where, for example, N++ is the number of simultaneous instances ("coincidences") of the outcome +1 on both sides of the experiment.

Coherence (physics)

In physics, coherence expresses the potential for two waves to interfere. Two monochromatic beams from a single source always interfere. Physical sources are not strictly monochromatic: they may be partly coherent. Beams from different sources are mutually incoherent. When interfering, two waves add together to create a wave of greater amplitude than either one (constructive interference) or subtract from each other to create a wave of minima which may be zero (destructive interference), depending on their relative phase.

Quantum-optical spectroscopy

Quantum-optical spectroscopy is a quantum-optical generalization of laser spectroscopy where matter is excited and probed with a sequence of laser pulses. Classically, such pulses are defined by their spectral and temporal shape as well as phase and amplitude of the electromagnetic field. Besides these properties of light, the phase-amplitude aspects have intrinsic quantum fluctuations that are of central interest in quantum optics. In ordinary laser spectroscopy, one utilizes only the classical aspects of laser pulses propagating through matter such as atoms or semiconductors.

Measurement in quantum mechanics

In quantum physics, a measurement is the testing or manipulation of a physical system to yield a numerical result. A fundamental feature of quantum theory is that the predictions it makes are probabilistic. The procedure for finding a probability involves combining a quantum state, which mathematically describes a quantum system, with a mathematical representation of the measurement to be performed on that system. The formula for this calculation is known as the Born rule.

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