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Lecture# Probability and Statistics

Description

This lecture covers fundamental concepts in probability and statistics, including geometric and negative binomial distributions, lack of memory property, Poisson distribution, cumulative distribution functions, and expectations of random variables. The instructor explains the waiting time until the nth success, memorylessness, and the distribution of marked fish in a sample. The lecture also delves into transformations of discrete random variables and the expectation of functions. Various examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical concepts.

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Instructor

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Related concepts (217)

MATH-232: Probability and statistics

A basic course in probability and statistics

Summary statistics

In descriptive statistics, summary statistics are used to summarize a set of observations, in order to communicate the largest amount of information as simply as possible. Statisticians commonly try to describe the observations in a measure of location, or central tendency, such as the arithmetic mean a measure of statistical dispersion like the standard mean absolute deviation a measure of the shape of the distribution like skewness or kurtosis if more than one variable is measured, a measure of statistical dependence such as a correlation coefficient A common collection of order statistics used as summary statistics are the five-number summary, sometimes extended to a seven-number summary, and the associated box plot.

Mathematical statistics

Mathematical statistics is the application of probability theory, a branch of mathematics, to statistics, as opposed to techniques for collecting statistical data. Specific mathematical techniques which are used for this include mathematical analysis, linear algebra, stochastic analysis, differential equations, and measure theory. Statistical data collection is concerned with the planning of studies, especially with the design of randomized experiments and with the planning of surveys using random sampling.

Probability density function

In probability theory, a probability density function (PDF), density function, or density of an absolutely continuous random variable, is a function whose value at any given sample (or point) in the sample space (the set of possible values taken by the random variable) can be interpreted as providing a relative likelihood that the value of the random variable would be equal to that sample.

Probability distribution

In probability theory and statistics, a probability distribution is the mathematical function that gives the probabilities of occurrence of different possible outcomes for an experiment. It is a mathematical description of a random phenomenon in terms of its sample space and the probabilities of events (subsets of the sample space). For instance, if X is used to denote the outcome of a coin toss ("the experiment"), then the probability distribution of X would take the value 0.5 (1 in 2 or 1/2) for X = heads, and 0.

Merge sort

In computer science, merge sort (also commonly spelled as mergesort) is an efficient, general-purpose, and comparison-based sorting algorithm. Most implementations produce a stable sort, which means that the relative order of equal elements is the same in the input and output. Merge sort is a divide-and-conquer algorithm that was invented by John von Neumann in 1945. A detailed description and analysis of bottom-up merge sort appeared in a report by Goldstine and von Neumann as early as 1948.

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